An Inglorious Enterprise: Empire, Ideology
and Transformation in Heart of Darkness and
A Passage to India
The following is a work in progress, the first chapter in a possible thesis project. Though the actual analyses of these two fictional works is still underway and will be added soon, what follows is a brief description of the historical details that underpin the two narratives and an explanation of my critical approach. See Marlow and Mrs. Moore for an abbreviated version of the upcoming textual analysis. SG
Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness and E. M. Forster's novel A Passage to India are two examples of literature about Empire. Both works utilize Britain's Age of Empire as a backdrop for the narratives and they explore British attitudes and behavior in the exotic locales of the imperial frontier. The two selections are also prominent in being among the most brilliant and complex of the genre. Using a Marxist critical approach, this study will compare and contrast the two works as examples of "realistic" fiction which both represents and critiques the societies in which they were produced.
Heart of Darkness and A Passage to IndiaDistinctions and Commonalities
To compare and contrast Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness with E. M. Forster's A Passage to India might at first appear to be an unlikely coupling. Apart from the obvious differences in length and form, since Heart of Darkness is a novella of approximately one hundred pages whereas A Passage to India is a full-length and fully developed novel, and the differing literary approaches the two forms necessitate, (an issue that will be addressed later in this study), the two works are also separated by a generation and were produced in different periods of each artist's career. Heart of Darkness was published in 1902, sixteen years after Conrad began writing in 1886, as one of the three short stories contained in Youth; A Narrative and Two Other Stories. The story was produced midway in Conrad's writing career since he continued to write fiction until his death in 1924. That same year, 1924, Edward Morgan Forster published his sixth and final novel A Passage to India. Though he continued to write essays and criticism until his death in 1970, A Passage to India crowned the fictional phase of Forster's writing that began in 1904; it is widely considered his most mature and complex novel.
Each novelist also came from very different backgrounds and their fiction reflects their differing life experiences. Joseph Conrad was born in 1857, the only child of Polish immigrants who were exiled by the Russian government from their Ukrainian homeland. Both of his parents died when he was a child and he lived in Poland with an uncle until he left home at age sixteen and joined the crew of a French ship in Marseilles in 1874. After twenty years at sea, (during which time he also became a British citizen in 1886), Conrad settled in England in 1894 and devoted himself to writing. Conrad drew heavily on his experiences as a seaman for material in his fiction and Heart of Darkness is no exception; much of the tale is loosely based on Conrad's experiences as mate of a small river steamboat in the African Congo in 1890 (Megroz, 62-3).
E. M. Forster was born in England in 1879. His father, a middle-class English architect, died when Forster was only a year old and he, too, was an only child and was raised by his mother. His life was influenced by his great-aunt who left him eight thousand pounds in trust when she died in 1887. He was educated in English public schools and at King's College at Cambridge. His education was followed by a year of travel in Italy and Greece with his mother which provided material for his early novels. Forster travelled to India a number of times beginning in 1912 and A Passage to India, started prior to World War I, is considered to draw heavily on these visits.
Despite these contrasts, the two works of fiction have a number of themes in common. The action of each work takes place against the backdrop of Empire. Heart of Darkness is set amidst the scramble for Africa that took place among the European imperial powers in the last three decades of the 19th century and which culminated in the Boer War. A Passage to India takes place among the British in India following World War I when the British Empire was in its decline. In this respect both works are part of the realistic tradition in literature; they are typical in their realistic representions of the historical conditions in their respective periods and are similarly typical in their treatment of the 'culture clashes' between Europeans and the natives they encounter. These similarities make these two works of fiction especially amenable to Marxian analysis as they satisfy Marxist scholar Georg Lukacs' theory of art given in Terry Eagleton's book Marxism and Literary Criticsim:"A 'realist' work is rich in a complex, comprehensive set of relations between man, nature, and history; and these relations embody and unfold what for Marxism is most 'typical' about a particular phase of history. By the 'typical' Lukacs denotes those latent forces in any society which are from a Marxist viewpoint most historically significant and progressive, which lay bare the society's inner structure and dynamic" (28).
Much of my analysis in this study will utilize a Marxist critical approach to literature (which will be explained in more detail in the following section) and I hope to bring out in this study how the two works of fiction fulfill Lukacs's specialized definition by revealing the problems and inherent contradictions of imperialism, both of theory and practice, in the ways each work represents historical conditions.
Apart from historical setting, the most significant way Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India accomplish this "typical" representation is through their portrayal of characters. Both stories are related from the viewpoints of European characters who find themselves in foreign lands as direct representatives of a European Power or due to some connection with imperial activity, although A Passage to India is unusual for the fiction of the time in also featuring the viewpoint of a colonial native. Because all of the contact between the Europeans and the natives, and for that matter between Europeans who meet within an imperial context, is influenced by the economic imperatives of imperial conquest, the relationships that develop between the various characters are to a great degree structured and determined by these conditions. Furthermore, both Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India are significant in the degree to which they closely examine the individual psychology, and the underlying ideology that informs it, of the European imperial "foot-soldier," the representative "on the ground" who carries out the imperial duties and designs of his homeland in a climate that is hostile and in a culture he does not understand and where he is not welcome. Alan Sandison concurs in The Wheel ofEmpire: "Whether as administrator, trader or adventurer the imperial intruder in his embattled consciousness provides the most dramatic evidence of the moral struggle which his physical presence symbolizes" (121). The heart of this study will be the examination of how the economic conditions of imperialism express themselves through the characters in both works in terms of ideological assumptions, cultural misunderstandings, and psychological crises and what these reveal about the imperial mission itself, as well as the culture that gave rise to it.
Following this political analysis will be an exploration of some of the aesthetic and spiritual issues suggested by the two works. The river that the protagonist Marlow travels in Heart of Darkness serves as a multi- level symbol in the story as do the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India and thus each of these "nature" symbols tie various facets within each individual work together in a uniquely organic way; each symbol represents not just one thing or idea but a number of things or ideas and yet, in some ways, they remain the ambiguous center of each work. Just as both authors exhibit an overall difference in emphasis and narrative technique, Conrad and Forster use these symbols in different ways and for different purposes, thus revealing elements of their distinctive artistic styles as well as providing comments on imperialism apart from each works' characters, setting, and plot.
There is also a spiritual or moral dimension suggested in each work that contrasts with its corresponding economic backdrop and provides insights to the more encompassing world-views of each author. Paul L. Wiley writes in Conrad's Measure of Man, "Conrad cares less about the state in itself as a background for his stories than about man as an individual. But he is concerned with order, or better its disappearance, in the society to which man belongs; and true order depends, finally, upon the existence of human bonds." (128). Similarly, while John Beer affirms that "A Passage to India...looks dispassionately at the phenomenon of imperialism," he quotes Forster as saying in 1960 that the novel is "really concerned with the difficulty of living in the universe." (4). Beer goes on to explain that while the novel indeed highlights the limitations of the ideological traditions of Empire and liberal-humanism, Forster saw a way of transcending these difficulties through "the cultivation of personal relationships [which could] nurture a core of individual resistance" (5). Forster in particular was also attracted to the mystic traditions of Hinduism and Islam and these interests are also hinted at within the text. In various ways, both Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India make clear Conrad's and Forster's own beliefs that the moral foundations of society rest with personal relationships rather than institutions. In an imperial context this is not surprising. Brain V. Street points out in The Savage in Literature that "people in far-off lands communicate through various symbols and the lands no longer seem so far apart. Love and personal relationships bind those at home to those in the wilder parts of the Empire" (27). Thus, where these beliefs can be detected in the texts, they serve as final comments on the limitations of the civilizing influences of industrial development.
Marxist Theory and Literary Analysis
In the Marxist tradition, works of art are analyzed in terms of the historical and cultural conditions of the society in which they are produced. I feel that Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India are particularly suited to this type of approach because the set of relations between groups and classes of people that imperialism sets up, and that these two works explore, starkly reveals the contradictions within capitalism in a way that a similar piece of fiction set within one culture and dealing with characters from that culture alone cannot. Prior to the analysis however, I would like to give a brief, pertinent explanation of the Marxist approach itself and of the terms I will be using.
After years of study and research, Karl Marx published the first volume of his monumental Das Kapital in 1867. In it Marx presents his theory of the materialist conception of history in which the economic base of a society gives rise to and interacts in a dialectical way with the societal superstructure of culture, law, religion and art. Among other things, Das Kapital traces the historical development of industrial capitalism as arising out of feudalism, predicts capitalism's further evolution, and sets forth theories of class structure and class struggle. It also critiques the methods by which industrial capitalism organizes the means of production so that capital and labor are separated and held by distinct and antagonistic groups within the society. This separation overwhelmingly benefits the holders of capital, politically and economically, to the corresponding detriment of those who sell their labor. Though this is by no means an adequate summary of Marx' ideas and contributions, my aim is to provide this simple theoretical framework within which to focus on more particular elements of Marxist theory. For the purposes of this study, the Marxist views concerning imperialism, ideology, and literature will form the basis of my critical approach to the two works in question.
Marx did not use the word imperialism but he did have theories about the impact of European capitalism on non-European pre-capitalist societies (Brewer, 27) and these were developed by later writers like Vladimir Lenin in his work Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. Lenin describes imperialism as the "product of highly developed industrial capitalism. It consists in the striving of every industrial capitalist nation to bring under its control or to annex larger and larger areas of...territory, irrespective of what nations inhabit those regions" (155). Though this imperial relationship between Europe and the under-developed world as defined by Lenin is certainly detectable in the historical settings of both Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India, the specific conditions, areas of the world, and historical time frames represented in each work are divergent enough to make a more specialized definition helpful. Achille Loria's article written in 1907 in which he distinguishes between two kinds of imperialism, and quoted here from Bernard Semmel's book Imperialism and Social Reform, is particularly useful:
Achille Loria...drew portraits of what he called 'economic imperialism' and 'commercial imperialism.' The first he described as violent annexation on the part of old and well-populated states of thinly populated states which because of special conditions- tropical climate, for example-cannot be colonized. This was the imperialism of the Boer War...the imperialism of capital export. 'Commercial imperialism,' on the other hand, pertained to the strengthening of bonds between the mother country and its colonies-it might mean an all-out fiscal union or simply the granting of tariff preference (142).
Loria's definitions of these two kinds of imperialism corresponds very well with the conditions described in each story. The economic activities described in Heart of Darkness are examples of "economic imperialism" in which Europeans do not settle in the area but are only there temporarily to gather and export raw materials, and the British presence in India described in A Passage to India more properly represents "commercial imperialism" or colonialism, in which citizens of the industrial nation actually settle in the conquered territory. The fundamental motive of both imperialisms is economic: profits are large because investment in the conquered area is minimal and native labor is cheap, and this situation is maintained by depriving the native peoples of political and economic rights. When analyzing the two works in detail, the distinction between the two forms of imperialism will help throw light on the impact these economic conditions have on the relationships of the various characters within each work.
An understanding of what ideology is and the Marxist view of its function in a capitalist society is also necessary to this study. Marx states in The German Ideology that "The division of labour...manifests itself also in the ruling class...so that inside this class one part appears as thinkers of the class...." (Elster, 303). The role of these thinkers is to develop and promote ideas that further solidify the power of the dominant class, which in a capitalist society is the class that controls the wealth, sometimes called the bourgeoisie. As Eagleton puts it: "The function of ideology is to legitimate the power of the ruling class in society; in the last analysis, the dominant ideas of a society are the ideas of its ruling class" (5).
In an imperial situation, which involves an industrial state engaged with a pre-industrial society for purposes of economic gain, profit depends largely on limiting rights for the natives. James Kavanagh points out in his essay "Ideology," that such a "social situation embodies an implicit tension that can at any time erupt into open conflict, and thus every class society has certain repressive mechanisms (police, armies, courts)...to force social subjects to accept the relations of subordination and dominance between classes" (308). But ideology, defined by Webster's Dictionary as "the integrated assertions, theories, and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program," is a more efficient way to manage social contradictions because it provides a comprehensive picture of the society in which social and economic inequalities are represented as natural and inevitable. The aim is to make the subordinate classes feel it would be futile to attempt to change their situation and "dominant-class subjects themselves are freer to believe that their wealth and power are after all justified" (Kavanagh, 309).
Much of the standard British ideology regarding Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries conforms with two basic related themes. One body of ideological writing emphasizes Britain as the most highly developed civilization in the world and therefore asserts that the people of the regions it controls can only benefit through their exposure to Britain and its culture. A. P. Thornton, in The Imperial Idea and Its Enemies, encapsulates it well: "England by her traditions and institutions was the natural guardian of liberty...She must see to it that her ideas were asserted, her influence felt, and her anger feared" (4). The other ideological theme is distinct in focusing specifically on racial and cultural differences between Europeans and native peoples. Yet Brian Street points out that racial stereotypes were already hardened before the latter half of the 19th century and "imperialism tended to use theories already worked out by scientists and which lent themselves to political manipulation" (5). These parallel, yet interlocking, ideologies will be examined more fully in the following chapter in terms of their historical development and their prevalence in the culture and literary fiction at the time Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India were written in order to aid identification of these ideas within the texts themselves. More specifically for this study, part of my analysis will involve examining characters from both works in terms of the extent that they internalize cultural and ideological assumptions and looking at the various psychological consequences that this entails because, in this approach, individual psychology is also a social product.
The Marxist theories of literature identify it as part of a society's ideological superstructure in that literary works are "forms of perception, particular ways of seeing the world" and these, in turn, are "the products of the concrete social relations into which men enter at a particular time and place; it is the way those class-relations are experienced, legitimized, and perpetuated" (Eagleton, 6). But Eagleton goes on to qualify that a work of art is never "a simple reflection of a ruling class's ideas; on the contrary, it is always a complex phenomenon, which may incorporate conflicting, even contradictory views of the world" (7). This is one reason why both Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India are so fascinating. Both works stand out as being exceptionally complex in that both present a realistic depiction of the historical circumstances in which they were written, both feature characters who espouse the ideology of the dominant culture, yet both also treat members of the "backward" countries with seriousness and sympathy as well as raising questions about the imperial mission itself in ironically drawing attention to its flaws. This all against a background of what Wendy Katz describes as "the gradually developing intensity of racism in literature [which] seems to reflect the historical shift from a relatively self-confident to a more defensive Empire" (132). John A. McClure writes in Kipling and Conrad that "as the twentieth century opened, the artists and intellectuals of the age increasingly came to believe that imperial rule, if inevitable in the short run, was an inglorious enterprise that deformed both those who ruled and those who submitted" (153). I believe that Joseph Conrad and E. M. Forster were two such artists and that the two works in question reflected their growing awareness of imperialism as an "inglorious enterprise" whether this was consciously expressed by the author(s) or not. This study will also attempt to tease out the ways in which each work both supports and subverts the imperial mission and its ideology and I will also speculate to a certain extent as to how these contradictions in the works reflected contradictions in the society in which they were written.
A Brief History of Empire
For the purposes of a Marxian analysis, which bases its analysis of literature on an understanding of the historical, political, and economic conditions in which the work is produced, it is worthwhile to give a brief historical summary of some of the major events and actual conditions of the time periods depicted in each work. Regarding Heart of Darkness, this will include a short history of European imperialism in Africa in the last decades of the 19th century and the effects of the Boer War. For A Passage to India this will include a summary of Britain's historical involvement in India and how World War I affected its position there. Both works also draw heavily on the respective authors' actual experiences, i.e. Conrad's journey to the Congo in 1890 and Forster's various travels in India before and after World War I, but this biographical information will be considered in the next chapter as an element of the critical analysis.
Ronald Hyam begins his study entitled Britain's Imperial Century: 1815-1914 with this assertion:
British empire and expansion was a set of aspirations and activities only loosely held together, chiefly by the defining limits and overshadowing realities of the American Republic and the Indian Empire...British interests throughout the 19th century hinged upon two necessities. One was to contain or accommodate to the rival expansion generated by the Great Experiment in North America. The other was to defend the Pax Britannica in India from internal subversion and external pressure from rival European powers (1-2).
In 1815, Britain's pre-industrial empire consisted of India, Canada, the West Indies, Australia, and the Cape Colony in South Africa and as the century and the industrial revolution progressed, Britain's unique position as the only industrial power in the world gave her opportunities to develop trade without territorial possession (Hyam, 21). Not only was Britain the workshop of the world, Hyam explains, but the banker too, replacing Amsterdam as the financial capital of Europe and exporting capital in the form of investment in items necessary to expand the market like railways and mining (Hyam, 25). As "banker" of the world, Britain's activities roughly conform with Achille Loria's definition of "economic imperialism," whereas "workshop" of the world would align with Loria's "commercial imperialism." No where is the British role in "economic imperialism" seen more clearly than in the European competition over Africa in the latter part of the 19th century that resulted in its subsequent partitioning among the European imperial powers.
Hyam points out that European public attention on Africa began around 1870, though Europe had had dealings with Africa since the slave trade (214). By 1899, Belgium, France, Germany, Britain, Portugal, and even Italy and Spain, had carved up approximately 70% of the African continent among them (Ibid., 214-5). British interests were scattered throughout the continent and even though Belgium controlled the Congo, the area in which Heart of Darkness is set, I believe Conrad's connection with Britain in his service on British ships and his naturalization as a British citizen in 1886, as well as his identification with British cultural values in his fiction and in his personal life, make his interpretation of events in Africa as British as any other English writer. British ideology regarding empire was the most developed and prevalent of any other European nation and Britain was the country Conrad chose as his adopted home. Therefore, when discussing the European presence in Africa and its portrayal in Heart of Darkness, I will specifically focus on Britain, especially in terms of ideology and racial attitudes, although there are many other details in the text to suggest that the story is being told from a British viewpoint. After all, the motto on the first postage stamps in the British Central Africa Protectorate was "Light in Darkness" (Street, 24).
Hyam explains that the partition of Africa was possible because of a power vacuum in the continent left by the collapse of the Turkish Empire in North Africa and as a means to counteract the expansion of militant Islam which also had designs on African territory (216). Of course, Britain also had to embark on territorial acquisition to maintain her position and protect her interests in response to other countries, like France and Germany, who wanted to expand their own empires (Rich, 32). The one widely-occuring asset that Africa had was ivory, popular since the 1820's and reaching its peak in imports into Britain in 1890, and was used for billiard balls, cutlery handles, and piano keys (Hyam, 217). London was the center of distribution of ivory for most of the 19th century until Belgium became a competitor near the end of the century (Ibid., 218). Also by the end of the century, there was intensifying rivalry between localized European interests in Africa and rising tensions between the Europeans and natives, which resulted in a rise in atrocities against Africans (Ibid., 223) and countless native revolts throughout the continent (194).
Inter-European rivalries came to a head in 1899 in South Africa between the British and the Boers, descendents of Dutch settlers, when it was confirmed that an area controlled by the Boers contained the largest and richest gold mine in the world. The Boers refused to grant mining rights to the British settlers and Britain was alarmed by the growing influence of German interests in the region; thus, "The question was: who was to run South Africa?" (Hyam, 243). The Anglo-Boer War lasted three years and though the British eventually triumphed, the experience heralded a rather ignominious end to Britain's imperial century. Britain's 500,000 men found it difficult to put down the 88,000 Boers in hostile and unfamiliar terrain and Britain was universally reviled for placing Boer women and children into concentration camps in which thousands died. British handling of the War and of the events leading up to it was criticized as inept, costly, and inefficient and the other imperial powers took note. Britain's reputation was damaged and many wondered if Britain could hang onto and manage its far flung territories.
These are the historical events in Africa against which Heart of Darkness is set. It was published during the Boer conflict and though based on an earlier trip to the Congo, Conrad could not have helped but revise his interpretation of the European presence in Africa in light of the War, as many others did in Britain. The conflict engendered a certain loss of British prestige in the international arena and a corresponding loss of self-confidence at home. A. P. Thornton writes that as a result of the war the "imperial idea ...suffered a contraction, a loss of moral content, from which it never completely recovered" (109). Britain began to seriously and publicly question its imperial mission and the reader hears an echo of this in Marlow's internal monologue. Also, native resistance was still strong and uprisings frequent as were European atrocities against the natives. All of these historical elements are present in Heart of Darkness making it a rich example of "realistic" fiction and a fairly typical representation of this period of European imperialism.
Britain had been present in India, through the British East India Company, since the 1600's. But when the Company lost its monopoly in 1833, the British government became more and more involved in administrating its "one piece of genuine imperial real estate" (Hyam, 32-5). India provided Britain with cheap and mobile labor after the abolition of slavery and, from a military point of view, the Indian army made Britain a great power. India was viewed as the foundation of the British Empire, or the "jewel in the crown," and its retention was considered essential. As the 19th century progressed and the competition with other imperial powers intensified, much of British imperial policy, especially in the Middle East, centered around maintaining open trade routes with India (Thornton, 164). India differed from Africa in that the British maintained a strong and visible presence there and an entire division of the British Civil Service was devoted to its administration. Thus, India was a colony and an example of Loria's "commercial imperialism."
Though Indian uprisings occured periodically, the 1857 mutiny of the Indian Army was a turning point in Anglo-Indian relations. V. G. Kiernan characterizes it in his study From Conquest to Collapse: "In 1857 a war of races exploded. It was the only time in the century when a native army trained by Europe rose up against its masters" (47). But Hyam points out that though the army mutiny was the essential trigger, it sparked a rural peasant uprising in a number of localities (134). Over the succeeding months, Britain was brutal in putting down the uprising, evidenced by a number of atrocities and massacres.
The Mutiny had two effects. The "native armies" were more tightly controlled and the regular British forces were increased which made British operations in India more expensive. The British government took over entirely from the East India Company and the tightening of military control also slowed political and social reform. Kiernan attests that the shadow of fear of a mutinous spirit spreading throughout the Empire lay over India for years to come and "well into the next century British soldiers coming out to India were given solemn warnings about the Mutiny, and how it might break out again" (50). The other important result of the Mutiny-Rebellion was the "addition of hatred to indifference in the British attitude towards Indians. The 'mild Hindu' stereotype was replaced by a belief in his deceptiveness and cruelty" (Hyam, 141). It was a shock for Britain to realize that their civilizing influence might not be welcomed by the Indians and the ideological veneer justifying British occupation wore off somewhat to reveal the starker realities of imperial domination.
Despite the quelling of the Mutiny, the spirit of nationalism continued to build momentum in India, evidenced by periodic and isolated uprisings, well into the early 20th century but the movement for independence was interrupted by World War I. Kiernan writes that by the time the first World War broke out in 1914 the British Empire was over-extended and vulnerable and many British were worried they would lose India (179) but, in the end, "1,300,000 Indian soldiers were employed [in the war effort] and more than 100,000 casualities were incurred" (184). However, after the War, native uprisings resumed and intensified as British prestige in India declined because the Indian contribution to the British war effort only increased India's aspirations for independence. This was due to one of the lessons of the War pointed out by Thornton: "Great Britain could not maintain her former world position, and therefore an overhaul of imperial strategy was necessary" (190). India hoped that this overhaul would include eventual self-government but the 1920's wore on with no steps taken to allow India, Britain's oldest colony, to progress toward the status of other former colonies like Canada or Australia. Though it was becoming clearer to Indians and many British alike that British imperial rule of India was a 19th century concept that had no place in the new century, Britain hung on to India because it was the symbol of its might. To lose India would mean to lose its position as a major power.
A Passage to India is told against this background of political and racial turmoil in India after World War I and all the historical details mentioned above are evident or alluded to in the text. Political opinion in Britain regarding India during this time was schizophrenic, admitting home-rule for India was inevitable on the one hand and maintaining India was too backward and fragmented to govern herself on the other. Britain's anxiety at this time is explained by Thornton: "Somehow the British had to reconcile this rising nationalist spirit and the desire for self-government with the maintenance of their own power...and of imperial unity" (217). In A Passage to India the British do not maintain this balancing posture with grace. Forster's treatment of the British civil servants in the novel highlights Britain's self-deception with regard to her position in India. Forster also accurately reproduces the conflicting attitudes of the Indians, especially through the characters of Aziz and his friends, who admire and resent the British at the same time. Because of the breadth of historical detail, A Passage to India, like Heart of Darkness, is a realistic representation of its time. Yet, both works not only represent but comment on historical conditions through character development, description, and plot.
Having provided some biographical and historical background for the two works in this chapter, Chapter Two will leave the "real" world and enter the "fictional" worlds created by Conrad and Forster. In this world, the reader will not only detect allusions to the actual historical conditions elucidated above, the reader will also follow the imaginative portrayals of Conrad's and Forster's fictional characters and trace how the authors represent these characters being affected and transformed by circumstances and by each other.
Brewer, Anthony. MarxistTheories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1980.
Das, G.K. and Beer, John Eds. E. M. Forster: A Human Exploration. London: the Macmillian Press Ltd., 1979.
Drabble, Margaret. Ed. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Eagleton, Terry. Marxism and Literary Criticism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1976.
Hyam, Ronald. Britain's Imperial Century:1815-1914. Lanham, MD: Barnes & Noble Books, 1993.
Katz, Wendy. Rider Haggard and the Fiction of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Kavanagh, James T. "Ideology," pp. 306-20. Critical Terms for Literary Study. Eds. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Kiernan, V. G. From Conquest to Collapse: European Empires from 1815-1960. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
Lenin, Vladimer. "Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism," pp. 153-63. Marxism: Essential Writings. Ed. David McLellan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Marx, Karl. A Reader. Ed. Jon Elster. New York: Press Syndicate of the Univesity of Cambridge, 1986.
McClure, John A. Kipling and Conrad. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.
Megroz, R. L. Joseph Conrad's Mind and Method. London: Faber & Faber Ltd., 1963.
Rich, Paul B. Race and Empire in British Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Sandison, Alan. The Wheel of Empire. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1967.
Semmel, Bernard. Imperialism and Social Reform. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960.
Street, Brian V. The Savage in Literature. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1975.
Thornton, A. P. The Imperial Idea and its Enemies. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985.
Wiley, Paul L. Conrad's Measure of Man. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1954.
Wynne-Davies, Marion. Ed. The Bloomsbury Guide to English Literature. New York: Prentice Hall General Reference, 1990.
© 1996 Shirley Galloway
Back to Lit List